Investment is the capital used to produce or provide services or goods. It may be a fixed investment such as premium shares and bonds or a variable investment such as property ownership. The investment is defined as assets purchased by individuals and enterprises to earn income now or in the future.
Another definition of investment is a sum of money invested in something, especially in businesses that involve purchasing new machinery and shares.
The investment seeks to achieve a set of objectives and goals:
Protect money from low purchasing power resulting from inflation, as the investment objective depends on capital gains and returns that maintain the purchasing power of the money invested.
Development in financial wealth, the investment aims to achieve acceptable financial returns, in conjunction with an increase in capital value.
Access to the most significant value of current income is investors’ focus on investments that yield the greatest financial returns without paying attention to any other considerations, such as risk ratio.
It provides income protection from taxes, where investment seeks to benefit investors from tax benefits resulting from applicable legislation. If the investment is invested in an inappropriate area, this may result in a high percentage of taxes.
To reach the most remarkable growth of wealth, and is interested in achieving this goal of investing speculators in the financial market, where they are keen to choose high-risk investments, and accept all the things that come from their choices.
It is securing the future, investments associated with individuals who have reached retirement age, where the goal of investing here is to ensure the future by investing money in the purchase of securities that offer medium returns, with the lowest risk.
Investment based on its own set of instruments, which constitute financial or real assets belonging to the ownership of investors, and these instruments are investment modes classified into two groups:
Physical investment instruments
They include various commercial, service, agricultural, and industrial activities and seek to produce services and goods that shape individuals’ needs.
Investments based on two methods:
– Direct investment: The investor buys real property, such as land and buildings.
– Indirect investment: The investor buys a real estate deed by participating in an investment portfolio or real estate bank.
Such as gold and coffee.
Financial investment instruments
Financial documents that handed over to individuals who own shares of the capital of a particular company, and these stocks are divided into two types:
Title deeds with the market, book, and nominal values; the little cost is the value on the equity bond, the book value is the value of the equity and does not include the shares, but the profits and reserves, and the market value that constitutes the share selling price in the capital market.
Stocks that give their owners their rights, such as priority in making profits and increasing the value of profit due to the liquidation of the company, these shares have three values such as ordinary shares: book values, market and nominal.
These are documents proving that the owners have certain rights to own objects or use specific services and are considered to be debts to natural or moral persons, and the bonds include the following types:
Known as government bonds, are long- and medium-term debt instruments issued by governments for resources that help them cope with inflation or cover the economic deficit.
Bonds issued by institutions
Contracts between enterprises (borrowers) and investors (lenders), and according to this agreement, the second party lends a monetary amount to the first party that undertakes to repay it with the value of its interest on a specified date.
Types of investment
There is a range of investment types classified according to several specific criteria, and information on the most important of these types is:
The production of services or goods intended for investment or consumption, such as agricultural and industrial projects.
They are seeking to raise the welfare of social individuals, such as cultural and sports projects.
Human resources investment
The pursuit of human development that appears in training and educational programs provided to individuals in the country.
Also known as business or project investment, investment is real when it provides investors with the right to acquire real assets, such as gold and real estate.
It is buying a share in capital or loan that provides the owner with profits or interest guaranteed by law.
Also known as portfolio investment, which is to invest in more than one type of financial or physical investment instrument.
Participation in one investment, such as buying only one financial or physical asset.
An investment that is legally carried out by an individual or group of individuals within a private company.
An investment is carried out by a state-owned enterprise or group of enterprises within a public company.
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